Preclinical Results

Preclinical studies demonstrate that CAI, the active component in CTO, inhibits VEGF, Akt, and Erk activity.

A murine glioblastoma xenograft model demonstrated that CTO in combination with Temodar significantly inhibits tumor growth.

Study Purpose

  • The primary purpose of the experiment was to evaluate the antitumor efficacy of CTO with or without Temodar in glioblastoma using a mouse xenograft model


  • U251 human glioblastoma cells were subcutaneously implanted into male, athymic NCr-nu/nu mice.
  • Mice were treated with CTO and/or Temodar for two rounds on a Q1D x 5 schedule over a period of 76 days


  • Treatment with CTO resulted in a statistically significant decrease in tumor growth. Treatment with Temodar + CTO resulted in greater inhibition of tumor growth than either product alone. The antitumor activity of the combination treatment was greater than the additive activity of both compounds alone showing chemosynergy with Temodar + CTO
  • CTO demonstrated the ability to cross the Blood Brain Barrier in preclinical models and in GBM patients.

Source: Karmali, RA., et al., Cancer Therapy 2011, 8:71-80.